Institutions within black neighborhoods[ edit ] Although some black neighborhoods may suffer from civic disinvestment ,  with schools assumed to be of lower quality due to some schools showing lower test scores, less effective policing  and fire protection, there are institutions that help to improve the physical and social capital of black neighborhoods. Ethnic groups created territories which they defended against change. This has helped produce majority black populations with significant middle to upper class black neighborhoods. Late 20th century[ edit ] By , the legal barriers enforcing segregation had been replaced by decentralized racism, where whites pay more to live in predominantly white areas. The migrants also discovered that the open discrimination of the South was only more subtly manifested in the North. It has had a major impact on the urban landscape. This pattern differs only by degree in different metropolitan areas.
But rarely have they been so isolated and impoverished as the African-American districts found in U. Newer groups competed even for the oldest and most rundown houses because the poorly constructed houses were what they could afford. The process began an intense phase in the late s and continues in some places to the present day. The riots that swept cities across the country from to damaged or destroyed additional areas of major cities, for instance Detroit 's 12th Street, the U and H street corridors in Washington, DC, and Harlem in New York City during the Harlem Riots. For many African Americans, the ghetto was "home", a place representing authentic blackness and a feeling, passion, or emotion derived from the rising above the struggle and suffering of being black in America. Cities' policies of gentrification, the process of renovating a district so that it conforms to middle-class taste, has also played a factor. Data on house prices and attitudes toward integration suggest that in the midth century, segregation was a product of collective actions taken by whites to exclude blacks from their neighborhoods. Many of these communities are found in the Maryland suburbs of Washington, D. This includes states such as Texas, Georgia, and Maryland, three of the biggest gaining states of college graduates. The black ghettos did not always contain dilapidated houses and deteriorating projects, nor were all of its residents poverty-stricken. Whites who broke these agreements could be sued by "damaged" neighbors. Urban renewal was extremely controversial because it involved the destruction of businesses, the relocation of people, and the use of eminent domain to reclaim private property for city-initiated development projects. The most common use of the term refers to mortgage discrimination. In the second half of the 20th century, renewal often resulted in the creation of urban sprawl and vast areas of cities being demolished and replaced by freeways and expressways , housing projects , and vacant lots, some of which still remain vacant at the beginning of the 21st century. Late 20th century[ edit ] By , the legal barriers enforcing segregation had been replaced by decentralized racism, where whites pay more to live in predominantly white areas. In the New Great Migration , black college graduates are returning to the South for jobs, where they generally settle in middle-class , suburban areas. Such communities have also developed in many of the larger cities of the United States. The African-American migrants were often resented by working classes in the North, who feared that their ability to negotiate rates of pay, or even to secure employment at all, was threatened by the influx of new labor competition. In response, some white groups resorted to the restrictive covenant , a formal deed restriction binding property owners in a given neighborhood not to sell to blacks. The migrants also discovered that the open discrimination of the South was only more subtly manifested in the North. Black church In black neighborhoods the churches have been important sources of social cohesion and activism. More established populations with more capital moved away to newer housing that was being developed on the outskirts of the cities, to get away from the pressure of new groups of residents. This has helped produce majority black populations with significant middle to upper class black neighborhoods. The justifications often used for urban renewal include the "renewal" of residential slums and blighted commercial and industrial areas. African Americans competed for work and housing with first or second generation immigrants in many major cities. Chicago 's South Side and adjoining South Suburbs together constitute the largest geographical predominantly Black region in America , stretching from roughly Cermak Road 22nd St on the north in the Near South Side to the far south suburb of University Park - a distance of approximately 40 miles.
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